The Chairman of the Doctoral Program in Bioengineering, Prof. Andrea Aliverti, is holding a yearly meeting to welcome the new PhD students. The purpose of the meeting is to provide useful information, also regarding administration issues.
The day of the meeting is November 15, 2018 and is announced by e-mail.
PhD Bioengineering Presentation - XXXIII - 2017
Seminars in Biomedical Engineering 2018-2019
29 marzo 2019
10.15-12.00, Room Emilio Gatti, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 20
Center for Health Technologies dell’Università di Pavia e Studio Legale Ferrario, Provenzali, Nicodemi & Partners
Privacy e Dati Biomedici
Abstract - I dati medici o sanitari sono tutte quelle informazioni personali idonee a rivelare lo stato di salute psico-fisica di un individuo. Sono considerati tali anche i dati genetici. In generale, i dati sanitari sono definiti "dati sensibili", la cui raccolta e il cui trattamento sono oggetto di attenta disciplina legislativa. Fino allo scorso anno, in Italia la normativa di riferimento è stata il cd. Codice Privacy (D.Lgs 276/3003), come integrato dalle specifiche Autorizzazioni (e dai Pareri) del Garante Italiano per la Privacy. Da maggio 2018, tuttavia, è entrato in pieno vigore il nuovo Regolamento Privacy Europeo (Reg n. 679/2016). In linea generale, esso pone al centro del trattamento dei dati il consenso informato dell’interessato; tuttavia, i dati sanitari possono essere utilizzati solo per finalità connesse alla salute (finalità di cura), per la supervisione del Sistema Sanitario Nazionale (finalità di governo) e per la ricerca nel pubblico interesse, lasciando agli Stati la possibilità di introdurre condizioni particolari o ulteriori limiti per il trattamento. Un esempio di novità in tema di tutela per i dati biomedici è la cd. anonimizzazione o pseudo-anonimizzazione del dato nell’ambito della ricerca clinica e scientifica. In questo senso, una recentissima sentenza (n. 30981/2017) della Corte di Cassazione, a Sezioni Unite, ha tuttavia chiarito che "i dati sensibili idonei a rivelare lo stato di salute possano essere trattati soltanto mediante modalità organizzative (es. cifratura o criptatura) che rendono non identificabile l'interessato: i soggetti pubblici o le persone giuridiche private, anche quando agiscano in funzione della realizzazione di una finalità di pubblico interesse o in adempimento di un obbligo contrattuale, sono tenuti all'osservanza di queste cautele nel trattamento dei dati in questione". Partendo dalle definizioni e dalle novità del Regolamento Privacy Europeo, nel seminario saranno analizzate le questioni più controverse in tema di tutela dei dati medici e genetici, con esempi e casi pratici tratti dalla prassi della ricerca biomedica.
Short biography -
Barbara Bottalico è avvocato presso il Foro di Milano, specializzata in diritto del lavoro e privacy. E' inoltre assegnista di ricerca presso il Center for Health Technologies dell’Università di Pavia e Professore a contratto in Bioetica presso il Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica, Medicina Sperimentale e Forense dell'Università di Pavia. Dopo la laurea in Giurisprudenza a pieni voti, ha conseguito il dottorato in Studi Giuridici Comparati ed Europei con una tesi di ricerca sull’utilizzo della prova neuroscientifica nel processo civile e penale. Ha svolto attività di ricerca in Italia e negli Stati Uniti, focalizzandosi sull’interazione tra diritto e nuove tecnologie. Dal 2013 è membro del Comitato Etico dell’Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta di Milano.Scientific area
Raffaele Della Cà firstname.lastname@example.org
, Guido Baroni email@example.com
April 15, 2019
14.30, Room Giulio Natta, Building 6, Campus Leonardo, ground floor
Dr. Michael Monaghan
Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin Dublin, Ireland
Applying novel design and non-invasive investigations to advance the fields of tissue engineering and optics
Abstract - Despite advances in pharmacological and cell therapies, myocardial infarction (MI) remains among the main causes of death in western countries. The use of electroconductive scaffolds and electrical stimulation have been shown to play a crucial role in differentiation of progenitor stem cell sources into cardiomyocytes and in the maturation of cardiac engineered organoids. To this end, our group has achieved the fabrication and optimization of 3D scaffolds based on a number of electroconductive polymers and fabrication through techniques such as freeze-drying and melt electro writing (MEW). This talk will present our results and progress to date in this emerging field and showcase advanced imaging tools in our group towards metabolic profiling in disease and cell differentiation.
Short biography – Michael Monaghan (www.monaghanlab.com ) is an Assistant Professor in Biomedical Engineering in the Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering and Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin. Prior to this appointment he was a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Research Institute for Women's Health in Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, following a Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology in Stuttgart Germany. His group focus on the reprogramming of stem cells towards cardiomyogenic lineages using modifiers of epigenetics and recapitulation of the cardiac environment in vitro using smart biomaterials, bioreactors and cardiomyogenenic extracellular matrices. His lab is also focused on the use of non- invasive microscopy to evaluate extracellular matrix and cell metabolic dynamics (metabolimaging).
April 18, 2019
14.00, Sala Seminari, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 20, ground floor
Dr. Bruno Scaglioni
STORM Lab UK, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Toward autonomous magnetic endoscopes: how to enable non-skilled operators to perform endoscopic navigation in clinical applications
Abstract - Colorectal cancer is among the deadliest forms of cancerous diseases, with 42.000 cases diagnosed and 16.000 deaths every year in the UK. Survival rate drops from 85% when cancer is detected at a pre-symptomatic stage to a tragic 5% when it is detected at a late stage. Early diagnosis could substantially help reducing cancer deaths and, in most countries, colonoscopy is the recommended screening method. In the UK, 911000 colonoscopies have been performed in 2016, 15 Millions in the US. Unfortunately, undertaking such procedure requires an expert clinician, which, in turn, requires a long and expensive training process. Most countries experience a dramatic shortage of experts, which translates in long waiting lists and missed referral targets. In addition, colonoscopy suffers from severe drawbacks on the patient side: Flexible endoscopes, normally used to carry out the procedure, stretch the tissue of the large bowel, thus inducing significant pain. In the UK, 49% of colonoscopies are not completed due to pain-related issues. We developed a magnetic endoscope, robotically actuated by means of an external permanent magnet. The core of the system is a tethered capsule equipped with a permanent magnet, a camera, an illumination system and a localisation circuit. The capsule is externally controlled by means of a permanent magnet mounted as the end effector of a robotic manipulator. The platform has been thoroughly tested in the past, demonstrating the ability to control the capsule on pre-planned trajectories. The current work is focussed on developing layers of intelligence around the physical platform to enable non-trained operators to safely and effectively navigate the entire length of the large bowel. Initially, we developed a control system to teleoperate the capsule through magnetic coupling, the operator commands the motion through a gaming-like controller, based on the video feed of the camera. The system autonomously computes the best strategy to perform the commanded action and consequently controls the robot motion. Subsequently, we took advantage of the live video feed to analyse the images and generate a strategy to autonomously traverse the colon. With this feature, we were able to successfully navigate to the end of the large bowel in several trials.
Short biography – Bruno Scaglioni received his MSc in 2012 and Ph.D. in 2017 in Systems and Controls at Politecnico di Milano, with a thesis entitled “Newton-Euler approach to modelling and control of flexible manipulators”. After the Ph.D. he moved to the United Kingdom where he is now Research Fellow in Medical Robotics at the University of Leeds. His main research interests focus on modelling and control of robotic platforms for medical applications. In particular, he is interested in leveraging advanced control techniques and AI to improve the intelligence of medical devices, thus enhancing their dexterity, ease of use, safety and effectiveness. Dr. Scaglioni is currently responsible for the research on the DaVinci platform and Principal Investigator of an industrial grant promoted by Intuitive Surgical.
Scientific area: Technologies
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Jan 31, 2019
14.00, Room Emilio Gatti, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 20
Prof. Roger G. Mark
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT
The Impact of Open Sharing of Clinical Data
Abstract - The growth of new knowledge and technology flourishes in the presence of open sharing of data, and that progress is inhibited by keeping data private. This talk proposes a historical journey focusing on Prof. Mark's experience with automated arrhythmia analysis in the past, and with critical care data up to today.
: Image/signal processing Contacts:
Riccardo Barbieri firstname.lastname@example.org
Dec 05, 2018
Prof. Patrice Abry
17.00, Aula Alario, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 21, 2nd floor
CNRS Laboratoire de Physique. Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, France
Self-Similarity and multifractality in Human brain activity: a wavelet based analysis of scale-free brain dynamics
Abstract - The temporal structure of macroscopic brain activity shows both oscillatory and scale-free dynamics. While the functional implication of neural oscillations has been largely demonstrated, the observation of scale-free dynamics has raised numerous questions, related to their nature and functional relevance. To address such issues, we propose here to enrich the characterization of scale-free brain activity both by the joint use of self-similarity and multifractality and by promoting a robust wavelet-based assessment procedure. To that end, human participants were recorded at rest and during task with magnetoencephalography~(MEG). Results show consistent infraslow (from $0.1$ to $1.5$ Hz) scale-free dynamics both at rest and during task. Further, the existence of a fronto-occipital gradient in self-similarity is reported, consistent with a hierarchy of temporal scales from sensory and associative to higher-order cortices. This gradient was further accentuated during task as compared to resting-state. Additionally, while little multifractality is reported at rest, significant increase were observed during task. A negative correlation across individuals in task vs rest variations between self-similarity and multifractality was also observed, mostly in the regions involved by the task. This concomitant decrease of self-similarity and increase of mulfractality %when switching from resting-state to task performance reflects a significant change from globally well-structured temporal dynamics at rest to a less globally structured activity during task, with significant transient and bursty non Gaussian locally scale-free structures. Altogether, the present study thus provides a refined characterization of scale-free dynamics in human brain activity.
Short biography - Patrice Abry is today « Research Director » for CNRS at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France, here he is in charge of the « Signal, System and Physics » statistical signal processing research group, within the Physics department. He received the degree of Professeur-Agrégé de Sciences Physiques, in 1989, at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan and the Ph. D. degree in physics and signal processing from the Claude-Bernard University, Lyon, France, in 1994. Patrice Abry has developed a long standing research program dedicated to the statistical multiscale analysis for the modeling of scale-free phenomena, with strong interest in researches integrating theoretical and applied developments in real-world applications, ranging from hydrodynamic turbulence to Internet traffic, heart rate variability, or neurosciences. He is the author of a book on wavelet, scale invariance and hydrodynamic turbulence and is also the coeditor of a book entitled Scaling, Fractals and Wavelets. Dr. Abry received the AFCET-MESR-CNRS prize for best Ph.D. in signal processing 1993–1994 and serves inn the IEEE SPS SPTM Committee since 2014. He is also an IEEE fellow.
perso.ens-lyon.fr/patrice.abry/ – email@example.com
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Dec 06, 2018
12.30, Sala Cardini (1st floor), Fondazione Don Gnocchi IRCCS S. Maria Nascente, Via Capecelatro 66 Milano
Prof. Clive Beggs
Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom
The venous connection: the role of veins in maintaining neurological health
Abstract - There is increasing evidence that the cerebral veins play an important role in regulating the haemodynamics and compliance of the intracranial space. Anomalies of the venous system have been linked with neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, as well as migraine. However, the role that venous anomalies play in the pathology of neurological disease is poorly understood.
In his lecture Prof. Beggs will present his findings regarding the role that the venous system plays in regulating the biomechanics of the intracranial space, and will discuss the importance of this in maintaining neurological health.
Short biography - Clive Beggs is Professor of Applied Physiology at Leeds Beckett University. He is both a medical engineer and a physiologist, with a research interest in the biomechanics of the intracranial space, and vascular anomalies associated with neurological disease. He has published extensively on this subject, and has worked with many of the leading researchers in the field, both in Italy and the USA.
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Dec 18, 2018
15.30, Aula Alario, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 21, 2nd floor
Prof. Alessandra Balduini
Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare, Università di Pavia
Laboratorio di Biotecnologie, IRCCS Fondazione San Matteo, Pavia
Silk biomaterials and bone marrow 3D modeling
Abstract - Bone marrow failure is the result of diseases, trauma, or cancer treatments, leading to a decreased production of blood cells and consequently, the necessity of blood transfusions. A number of studies point to the bone marrow niche as the core of blood cell production but with many interesting complex environmental factors for consideration. Thus, future advancement in the study of blood cell production will depend on the evolution of bioengineering techniques for reproducing physiologically relevant conditions in the bone marrow niche environment. To achieve this goal, the field is moving towards the reproduction of the characteristic features of the physiologic bone marrow microenvironment ex vivo by the use of relevant biomaterials and bioreactors, along with appropriate human cell sources. These models are expected to provide better mechanistic understanding and control of blood component production as well as insight towards the development of systems for the generation of functional blood cells necessary in transfusion and regenerative medicine to replace blood-donor supply. We have successfully developed different bioreactor systems, using silk fibroin, mimicking the bone marrow environment and thereby supporting haematopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis to generate significant numbers of human platelets ex vivo. Silk fibroin, derived from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons, is a promising biomaterial for bone marrow tissue engineering because of its tunable architecture and mechanical properties, the capacity of incorporating labile compounds without loss of bioactivity and demonstrated ability to support platelet production without premature activation. Herein, our experience with bone marrow niche structure and composition, in combination with ex vivo models, in physiological and pathological conditions, will be discussed.
Short biography - Alessandra Balduini, MD, got her Medical Degree and Board of Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Pavia, Italy. After obtaining her Medical Degree she spent three years at the University of Indiana, Indianapolis, USA working, as post-doc, in the laboratory of Hal Broxmeyer, one of the pioneers of cord blood transplantation. Before creating her research group in 2007, she was a staff physician in the laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, IRCCS San Matteo Foundation, and University of Pavia, Italy. In 2005-2006 she was Visiting Professor at Dana Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School. Since 2007 she has led a research group that is based in two different academic institutions: the Department of Molecular Medicine - University of Pavia, Italy and the Department of Biomedical Engineering - Tufts University, Boston, USA. The goal is to establish a cross-sectional program that integrates biological with bioengineering approaches to the study of haematopoiesis and bone marrow environment. Her research focuses on how the different components of the bone marrow microenvironment regulate platelet production. In 2011 she developed the groundwork for modeling human bone marrow by bioengineering a new 3D model made of porous silk that fully recreates the physiology of the living bone marrow niche environment. This system, completely redesigned in 2015 and 2017, is capable of successfully generating functional platelets ex vivo, offering new opportunities for producing blood components for clinical applications.
Scientific area: Regenerative medicine
Contacts: Sara Mantero firstname.lastname@example.org, Manuela Raimondi email@example.com
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Dec 18, 2018
17.00, Aula Alario, Politecnico di Milano, Via Golgi 39, Building 21, 2nd floor
Prof. Diego Mantovani
Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Laval University, Canada
Title: 3D triple human cell culture in bioreactor from collagen gel scaffolds: innovation in cosmetics, advanced in vitro models and regenerative medicine
Abstract - Over the last 50 years, biomaterials, prostheses and implants saved and prolonged the life of millions of humans around the globe. Today, nano-biotechnology, nanomaterials and surface modifications provides a new insight to the current problem of biomaterial complications, and even allows us to envisage strategies for the organ shortage. In this talk, creative strategies for mixing vascular cells and collagen-based materials will be targeted with the overall aim to envisage today how far innovation can bring tomorrow solutions for regenerative medicine. Collagen gel is a commonly used scaffold in vascular tissue engineering due to its biological properties including a high potential for supporting and guiding vascular cells in the regeneration process. With the aim to regenerate the vascular wall, the approach we deployed consisted in first reproducing the media, which provide the high elastic properties of the vessel wall, thus making it an essential and effective component for blood and nutrients transportation. Starting from an original method aimed to process collagen and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we developed an endothelialised two layers collagen cell-based tubular scaffold. The external layer was composed of fibroblasts (FBs) and SMCs seeded within collagen. The middle layer was composed of SMCs seeded within collagen, and endothelial cells (ECs) were culture on the lumen of the construct. The construct was expected to provide vascular tissue remodeling due to cells/cells and cells/matrix interactions and to produce an engineered tissue with hierarchical structure close to that of blood vessel walls. It was also expected to provide a valid in vitro model for further studies of vascular patho-physiology. The middle and external layer were mold around a mandrel, directly in the bioreactor chamber. Then, the mandrel was removed and a ECs solution was perfused inside the lumen. The interaction between cells enhanced the matrix remodeling and the properties of the arterial construct resulted strongly improved. This shows that vascular cells tri-culture using collagen gel scaffold is a valid strategy for the regeneration of the vascular tissue. The overall take home message of this talk is aimed to show how 3D pluri-culture of appropriate material/cell/environment represent the today bottleneck in regenerative medicine and which are few of the strategies that have to be investigated to push forward innovation in the field.
Short biography - Holder of the Canada Research Chair in Biomaterials and Bioengineering for the Innovation in Surgery, professor at the Department of Materials Engineering at Laval University, adjunct director at the Division of Regenerative Medicine of the Research Center of the CHU de Québec, Diego Mantovani is a recognised specialist in biomaterials. At the frontier between engineering, medicine and biology, within his team, their works aim to improve the clinical performances of medical devices for functional replacement, and to envisage the next generations of biomaterials to develop artificial organs enhancing the quality of the life of patients. He has authored more than 260 original articles, holds 4 patents, and presented more than 190 keynotes, invited and seminar lectures worldwide in the field of advanced materials for biomedical applications. His H-Factor is 43 (Nov 2018) and his works received more than 7000 citations. In 2012, he was nominated Fellow of the International Union of Societies for Biomaterials Science & Engineering (FBSE) for his leadership and contribution to biomaterials for medical devices. He was Executive Co-Chair of the 10th World Biomaterials Congress 2016. He is advisor of three medical devices consortium in the Americas, Asia and Europe.
Regenerative medicine Contacts:
Sara Mantero firstname.lastname@example.org,
Gabriele Candiani email@example.com
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